Introduction to Animals

Javascript not enabled

 
Name: 
 

Introduction to Animals


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following attributes is not used to characterize animals?
a.
locomotion at some time during the life cycle
b.
multicellular eukaryotes
c.
heterotrophic
d.
sexual reproduction involving motile sperm
e.
None of the above, all of the attributes are typical of animals.
 

 2. 

The kingdom Animalia is divided into about:
a.
325 phyla.
b.
16 classes.
c.
32 classes.
d.
35 phyla.
e.
6 phyla.
 

 3. 

The diverse body plans seen in Animalia apparently developed during the:
a.
Precambrian
b.
Cambrian.
c.
Mesozoic.
d.
Silurian.
e.
Devonian.
 

 4. 

Traditional phylogenies of Animalia are being reconsidered and changed due to:
a.
newly discovered prokaryotes in soil.
b.
extensive fossil finds in China.
c.
new phyla of Protista.
d.
better pictures from scanning electron microscopes.
e.
recent molecular data.
 

 5. 

Which of the following group of animals is sessile?
a.
sponge
b.
jellyfish
c.
ctenophore
d.
planarian
e.
fluke
 

 6. 

Animals apparently evolved:
a.
in freshwater.
b.
in the ocean.
c.
during the Cambrian explosion.
d.
in swamps.
e.
during the Devonian.
 

 7. 

Fewer animals live in freshwater than in the ocean, because:
a.
freshwater is hypotonic and animals must spend energy to remove water from their bodies.
b.
freshwater is a less constant temperature environment.
c.
freshwater contains less food.
d.
freshwater is a much more variable environment.
e.
All of the above.
 

 8. 

All of the following are characteristic of life in marine environments except:
a.
many nutrients and gases are dissolved in the water and are readily available.
b.
buoyancy helps to support the organisms.
c.
currents may wash organisms away from suitable habitats.
d.
osmotic balance is very difficult for invertebrates to maintain.
e.
temperatures are relatively stable.
 

 9. 

The first air-breathing land animals were:
a.
vertebrates.
b.
amphibians.
c.
snails.
d.
reptiles.
e.
arthropods.
 

 10. 

The first land animals, arthropods, moved onto land about:
a.
650 million years ago.
b.
450 million years ago.
c.
250 million years ago.
d.
230 million years ago.
e.
65 million years ago.
 

 11. 

Amphibians appeared on land about:
a.
543 million years ago.
b.
450 million years ago.
c.
420 million years ago.
d.
250 million years ago.
e.
65 million years ago.
 

 12. 

To adapt to land the primary problem was:
a.
mating.
b.
locomotion.
c.
predation.
d.
desiccation.
e.
acquiring enough nitrogen.
 

 13. 

Adaptations of animals to land include:
a.
internal fertilization.
b.
egg shell.
c.
embryo development within the female.
d.
internal respiratory surfaces.
e.
All of the above.
 

 14. 

The only extant Parazoa are the:
a.
jellyfish.
b.
sponges.
c.
flatworms.
d.
roundworms.
e.
ribbon worms.
 

 15. 

A true body cavity completely surrounded by __________ is called a coelom.
a.
ectoderm
b.
mesoderm
c.
endoderm
d.
exoderm
e.
mesoglea
 

 16. 

Because sponges function in ways similar to colonial unicellular protozoans, they are classified among the ____________. All other animals are considered ____________, which are distinct from sponges.
a.
protozoa; metazoa
b.
parazoa; metazoa
c.
parazoa; eumetazoa
d.
metazoa; protozoa
e.
protozoa; parazoa
 

 17. 

Bilateral symmetry:
a.
evolved along with a corresponding trend toward cephalization.
b.
is characteristic of Cnidarians.
c.
characterizes the surfaces of an animal as dorsal and ventral.
d.
results from schizocoelous development.
e.
describes ectoderm and endoderm, the first two germ layers that developed.
 

 18. 

The major phylum of animals that has an asymmetrical body plan is:
a.
Cnidaria.
b.
Ctenophora.
c.
Echinodermata.
d.
Porifera.
e.
All of the above.
 

 19. 

Ctenophores exhibit:
a.
bilateral symmetry.
b.
spherical symmetry.
c.
linear symmetry.
d.
radial symmetry.
e.
circular symmetry.
 

 20. 

The head end of an animal is termed its:
a.
posterior end.
b.
ventral end.
c.
inferior end.
d.
lateral end.
e.
anterior end.
 

 21. 

A ___________ plane divides the animal body into dorsal and ventral parts:
a.
median.
b.
frontal.
c.
sagittal.
d.
cross.
e.
transverse.
 

 22. 

Cnidarians and flatworms:
a.
are coelomate.
b.
are pseudocoelomate.
c.
are acoelomate.
d.
have two germ layers.
e.
have three germ layers.
 

 23. 

The __________ gives rise to muscles, bones, and the circulatory system.
a.
endoderm
b.
ectoderm
c.
mesoderm
d.
blastopore
e.
mesoglea
 

 24. 

The lining of the digestive tube is formed from:
a.
endoderm.
b.
ectoderm.
c.
germ cells.
d.
mesoderm.
e.
pseudoderm.
 

 25. 

Diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians and ____________, have only two germ layers, ectoderm and ____________.
a.
sponges; ectoderm
b.
sponges; mesoderm
c.
ctenophores; mesoderm
d.
ctenophores; endoderm
e.
ctenophores; metaderm
 
 
Figure 28-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar001-1.jpg

 

 26. 

In Figure 28-01, the tissue layer labeled 5 will give rise to the:
a.
skeletal system.
b.
muscles.
c.
circulatory system.
d.
lining of the digestive system.
e.
All of the above.
 

 27. 

In Figure 28-01, the development pattern labeled Type A is characteristic of:
a.
Ctenophores.
b.
Chordates.
c.
Cnidarians.
d.
Annelids.
e.
Echinoderms.
 

 28. 

The first opening which develops in deuterostomes develops into the:
a.
coelom.
b.
gut.
c.
anus.
d.
mouth.
e.
nostril.
 

 29. 

Radial cleavage is found in the:
a.
arthropods.
b.
mollusks.
c.
echinoderms.
d.
annelids.
e.
cnidarians.
 

 30. 

Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity that is not completely lined with ____________. These animals include ____________ and the roundworms.
a.
endoderm; nemerteans
b.
endoderm; flatworms
c.
mesoderm; rotifers
d.
mesoderm; flatworms
e.
mesoderm; nemerteans
 

 31. 

In most deuterostomes, the mesoderm forms by:
a.
duplication of the ectoderm.
b.
schizocoely.
c.
migration.
d.
enterocoely.
e.
blastocoely.
 

 32. 

Determinate cleavage takes place in ____________ and is characterized by a pattern of development where the ultimate fate of each cell is ____________.
a.
protostomes; not fixed until late in the developmental process
b.
protostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
c.
deuterostomes; not fixed until late in the developmental process
d.
deuterostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
e.
coelomates; fixed early in the developmental process
 

 33. 

All of the following are protostomes except:
a.
Porifera.
b.
Mollusca.
c.
Annelida.
d.
Arthropoda.
e.
Echinodermata.
 
 
Figure 28-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar002-1.jpg

 

 34. 

Radial symmetry developed at the point on Figure 28-02 labeled _________.
a.
2
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5
e.
6
 

 35. 

In Figure 28-02, three germ layers arose in a common ancestor at the point labeled:
a.
1.
b.
4.
c.
5.
d.
6.
e.
None of the above.
 

 36. 

The placozoans are the simplest animals, and appear to have evolved:
a.
from poriferans.
b.
from more complex invertebrates.
c.
independently from the remainder of the kingdom Animalia.
d.
from fungi.
e.
None of the above.
 

 37. 

Sponges are believed to have arisen from the choanoflagellates because they possess:
a.
amebocytes.
b.
spicules.
c.
spongin.
d.
collar cells.
e.
oscula.
 

 38. 

Sponge larvae:
a.
are miniature sponges that float about in the plankton.
b.
crawl along the bottom like an amoeba.
c.
are flagellated and able to swim.
d.
bud off the adult sponge.
e.
float out of the adult, fall to the bottom, and attach to form a new sponge.
 

 39. 

Most sponges are ______________, meaning that one individual can produce both male and female gametes.
a.
asexual
b.
hermaphroditic
c.
indeterminate
d.
heterozygous
e.
enterocoelous
 

 40. 

Digestion in a sponge takes place in:
a.
the osculum.
b.
individual cells.
c.
the spongocoel.
d.
the spicule.
e.
the mesohyl.
 

 41. 

Most representatives of the phylum Porifera gain nutrition as:
a.
parasites.
b.
predators.
c.
autotrophs.
d.
herbivores.
e.
None of the above.
 

 42. 

Within the phylum Cnidaria, corals are most closely related to:
a.
Hydra.
b.
jellyfish.
c.
sea anemones.
d.
Portuguese man-of-war.
e.
hydrozoans.
 

 43. 

From an evolutionary perspective, true nerve cells are first seen in the phylum:
a.
Porifera.
b.
Cnidaria.
c.
Ctenophora.
d.
Mollusca.
e.
Arthropoda.
 

 44. 

In the class Anthozoa are found:
a.
Hydra.
b.
Obelia.
c.
Cyanea.
d.
corals.
e.
jellyfish.
 

 45. 

Cnidarians are _______________, meaning they have two tissue layers.
a.
diploid
b.
protostomes
c.
diploblastic
d.
bilateral
e.
hermaphroditic
 

 46. 

The Portuguese man-of-war belongs to the class:
a.
Cnidozoa.
b.
Scyphozoa.
c.
Hydrozoa.
d.
Anthozoa.
e.
Cubezoa.
 

 47. 

In cnidarians, nematocysts are housed in specialized cells, the ___________, located primarily on the tentacles.
a.
choanocytes
b.
cnidocils
c.
pseudopodia
d.
nerve nets
e.
cnidocytes
 

 48. 

Hundreds or thousands of individuals of certain _________ form colonies in which each polyp has a special function such as feeding, reproduction, or defense.
a.
sea anemones
b.
hydrozoans
c.
jellyfish
d.
ctenophores
e.
sponges
 

 49. 

The larvae of some cnidarians are known as ____________ larvae.
a.
veliger
b.
trochophore
c.
planula
d.
nauplius
e.
zoea
 

 50. 

Corals can capture prey, but also depend for nutrition on:
a.
symbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae.
b.
symbiotic lichens.
c.
dead animals they colonize on the bottom.
d.
photosynthesis in the shallow water since they are part animal and plant.
e.
suspended materials captured by filter feeding.
 

 51. 

Among the scyphozoans, the ____________ stage is reduced or absent.
a.
polyp
b.
hydra
c.
medusa
d.
larval
e.
juvenile
 

 52. 

Sea anemones, unlike scyphozoans, have a partitioned gastrovascular cavity. This serves as a means of:
a.
harboring enteric bacteria.
b.
digesting very large food items.
c.
harboring photosynthetic zooxanthellae.
d.
digesting different categories of organic molecules in different areas.
e.
decreasing the surface area of the gastrovascular cavity.
 
 
Figure 28-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar003-1.jpg

 

 53. 

The type of larva pictured at # 4 in Figure 28-03 is a:
a.
planula.
b.
miracidium.
c.
cercaria.
d.
polyp.
e.
medusa.
 

 54. 

In Figure 28-03, asexual reproduction is occurring at point:
a.
1.
b.
2.
c.
4.
d.
7.
e.
9.
 

 55. 

In Figure 28-03, which of the following structures was produced by meiosis?
a.
1
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5
e.
6
 

 56. 

Members of the phylum _______________ are the simplest organisms that have a separate mouth and anus.
a.
Platyhelminthe
b.
Ctenophora
c.
Cnidaria
d.
Porifera
e.
Placozoa
 

 57. 

Ctenophores capture food by:
a.
sticky mucus on their tentacles that capture small invertebrates.
b.
adhesive glue cells that trap prey.
c.
stinging hair cells that immobilize small invertebrates.
d.
digging through the bottom muds for small invertebrates.
e.
filter feeding.
 

 58. 

Comb jellies move by:
a.
floating in the water, since they are so small.
b.
flagella.
c.
ameboid movements in the water.
d.
rows of cilia.
e.
jet propulsion of water from the gastrovascular cavity.
 

 59. 

The body wall of cnidarians and ctenophores consist of:
a.
three tissue layers.
b.
a single epidermal layer.
c.
loosely organized cells.
d.
two epidermal layers with scattered mesophyll cells in between.
e.
inner and outer cell layers separated by a jelly-like mesoglea.
 

 60. 

Deuterostomes are characterized by ____________ and ____________ cleavage.
a.
radial; determinate
b.
radial; indeterminate
c.
spiral; determinate
d.
spiral; indeterminate
e.
None of the above.
 

 61. 

Deuterostomes evolved during the:
a.
Cambrian.
b.
Precambrian.
c.
Paleozoic.
d.
Cenozoic.
e.
Devonian.
 

 62. 

Molecular data suggests that hemichordates are most closely related to:
a.
tunicates
b.
lancelets.
c.
echinoderms.
d.
vertebrates.
e.
annelids
 

 63. 

Echinoderms are unusual invertebrates as they have:
a.
an endoskeleton.
b.
pentaradial symmetry.
c.
a water vascular system.
d.
pedicellariae present in some classes.
e.
All of the above.
 

 64. 

All Echinodermata are found:
a.
in marine habitats.
b.
in freshwater.
c.
on land.
d.
on the bottom of the ocean or lakes.
e.
in shallow ocean waters.
 

 65. 

Class ___________ includes mostly extinct species and a few extant species such as feather stars and sea lilies.
a.
Asteroidea
b.
Holothuroidea
c.
Ophiuroidea
d.
Echinoidea
e.
Crinoidea
 

 66. 

Echinoderms are unique because:
a.
the larvae are radially symmetrical and the adult is bilaterally symmetrical.
b.
the adults and larva are both pentaradially symmetrical.
c.
the adult and larva are both radially symmetrical.
d.
the adult and larva are both biradially symmetrical.
e.
their larvae are bilaterally symmetrical while the adult is pentaradially symmetrical.
 

 67. 

Which class within the echinoderms has the greatest species diversity?
a.
Asteroidea
b.
Holothuroidea
c.
Ophiuroidea
d.
Echinoidea
e.
Crinoidea
 

 68. 

The most unique feature of the echinoderms is their:
a.
digestive system.
b.
nervous system.
c.
closed circulatory system.
d.
water vascular system.
e.
mantle.
 

 69. 

Prominent spines are found on __________ of the phylum Echinodermata.
a.
Ophiuroidea
b.
Echinoidea
c.
Asteroidea
d.
Concentricycloidea
e.
Holothuroidea
 

 70. 

One characteristic of the class Holothuroidea is:
a.
that most are predators that consume partially digested prey.
b.
that most of the species are extinct.
c.
that they have a reduced endoskeleton consisting of microscopic plates embedded in the body wall.
d.
that moveable spines are used to facilitate locomotion.
e.
that they have a distinct central disk with very long, slender arms.
 

 71. 

Sea stars eat:
a.
large fish.
b.
mostly algae.
c.
sea weed.
d.
mostly bivalves.
e.
debris on the bottom.
 

 72. 

Sea cucumbers will __________ when environmental conditions deteriorate.
a.
eject their digestive tract, respiratory structures, and gonads.
b.
crawl to an area with more favorable conditions.
c.
form a resistant spore.
d.
float to the surface and then later drop to a more favorable location.
e.
crawl deep into the ocean muds on the bottom.
 

 73. 

Which of the following is not a characteristic shared by all chordates at some point in their life cycle?
a.
possession of a coelom
b.
three primary cell layers
c.
dorsal tubular nerve cord
d.
pharyngeal gill slits
e.
vertebrae
 

 74. 

Urochordates are odd chordates, as typically only the ____________ shows the basic chordate characteristics.
a.
head end
b.
tail end
c.
adult
d.
larva
e.
egg
 

 75. 

Adult tunicates resemble ______________ and are _________________.
a.
eels; carnivorous.
b.
corals; photosynthetic
c.
starfish; carnivorous
d.
sponges; filter feeders
e.
earthworms; detritivores
 

 76. 

The neural crest cells of vertebrates influence the development of all of the following except the:
a.
lungs.
b.
nerves.
c.
cranium.
d.
jaws.
e.
head muscles.
 

 77. 

The most closely related animal to vertebrates are the:
a.
Hemichordata.
b.
Urodela.
c.
Cephalochordata.
d.
Ophiuroidea.
e.
Urochordates.
 
 
Figure 30-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar004-1.jpg

 

 78. 

The organism in Figure 30-01 is a representative of:
a.
the phylum Hemichordata.
b.
the phylum Echinodermata.
c.
the phylum Chordata.
d.
the subphylum Urochordata.
e.
the subphylum Cephalochordata.
 

 79. 

The structure in Figure 30-01 labeled ___________ is characteristic of the phylum to which this organism belongs.
a.
9
b.
6
c.
5
d.
4
e.
10
 

 80. 

Lancelets are:
a.
carnivores.
b.
filter feeders.
c.
parasites.
d.
herbivores.
e.
algae feeders.
 

 81. 

There are about _______________ identified species of vertebrates.
a.
2,000
b.
6,000
c.
32,000
d.
48,000
e.
124,000
 

 82. 

The coelacanth is found in the class:
a.
Dipnoi.
b.
Actinistia.
c.
Placoderms.
d.
Cephalochordata.
e.
Urochordata.
 

 83. 

The two groups representing the “jawless” fishes are:
a.
Cephalochordata and Placoderms.
b.
Chondrichthyes and Actinistia.
c.
Myxiniformes and Cephalaspidormorphi.
d.
Dipnoi and Actinistia.
e.
Placoderms and Petromyzontiformes.
 

 84. 

Which of the following characteristics is used to characterize vertebrates?
a.
a bony endoskeleton
b.
blood containing hemoglobin
c.
a four-chambered heart
d.
lungs
e.
live birth
 

 85. 

The superclass Tetrapods includes:
a.
fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
b.
lancelets, cartilage, and bony fish.
c.
amphibians and reptiles.
d.
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
e.
echinoderms and chordates.
 

 86. 

Hagfishes are differentiated from lampreys and all other fishes in that:
a.
hagfishes do not have gills.
b.
hagfishes lack a jaw.
c.
hagfishes are parasitic.
d.
hagfishes lack vertebrae.
e.
All of the above.
 

 87. 

Extinct jawless fish include the:
a.
lungfish.
b.
lancelets.
c.
placoderms.
d.
acanthodians.
e.
ostracoderms.
 

 88. 

A fish with a cartilaginous skeleton and paired fins would be:
a.
an Agnathan.
b.
a Crinoid.
c.
a Cephalochordate.
d.
a Urochordate.
e.
a Chondrichthyean.
 

 89. 

Scales of enamel are found on:
a.
lungfish.
b.
sharks.
c.
ray-finned fish.
d.
lob-finned.
e.
snakes.
 

 90. 

Sharks may detect their prey using all of the following except:
a.
olfaction.
b.
their lateral lines.
c.
electroreceptors.
d.
sight.
e.
None of the above, all are used by sharks to detect their prey.
 

 91. 

Sharks detect motion in the water or waves by their:
a.
lateral lines.
b.
electroreceptors.
c.
keen olfaction.
d.
sight.
e.
dorsal fin.
 

 92. 

Sharks that are __________________ incubate their eggs in the uterus.
a.
oviparous
b.
viviparous
c.
ovoviviparous
d.
placental
e.
eutherial
 

 93. 

The chordate class with the most species is the:
a.
Osteichythyes.
b.
Reptilia.
c.
Amphibia.
d.
Mammalia.
e.
Chondrichthyes.
 

 94. 

The first members of classes Osteichythyes and Chondrichthyes appeared in the ____________ period.
a.
Permian
b.
Paleozoic
c.
Devonian
d.
Jurassic
e.
Cretaceous
 
 
Figure 30-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar005-1.jpg

 

 95. 

The structure labeled 18 in Figure 30-02 is the:
a.
brain.
b.
gills.
c.
heart.
d.
stomach.
e.
swim bladder.
 

 96. 

The function of the structure labeled ________ in Figure 30-02 is to aid buoyancy regulation of the fish.
a.
4
b.
16
c.
14
d.
5
e.
None of the above.
 

 97. 

Based on Figure 30-02, which of the following structures places this fish in the class Actinopterygii?
a.
5
b.
19
c.
6
d.
13
e.
7
 

 98. 

The amphibians are believed to have arisen from ancestral:
a.
chondrichthyean fish.
b.
actinopterygian fish.
c.
reptiles.
d.
dipnoi.
e.
actinistia.
 

 99. 

The first amphibians were the ____________.
a.
squamata
b.
anurans
c.
lungfish
d.
labyrinthodonts
e.
coelacanths
 

 100. 

Which taxon is not part of the class Amphibia?
a.
Squamata
b.
Anura
c.
Apoda
d.
Urodela
e.
None of the above, all belong to the class Amphibia.
 

 101. 

Salamanders are members of the order:
a.
Apoda.
b.
Urodela.
c.
Anuran.
d.
Tetrapoda.
e.
Squamata.
 

 102. 

Metamorphosis occurs in which of the following vertebrate classes?
a.
Chondrichthyes
b.
Reptilia
c.
Myxiniformes
d.
Amphibia
e.
All of the above.
 

 103. 

At some point in their life cycle, amphibians may respire via all of the following except:
a.
gills.
b.
lungs.
c.
swim bladder.
d.
skin.
e.
book lungs.
 

 104. 

The heart of amphibians has ________ chambers. The hearts of birds and mammals have _______ chambers.
a.
two; three
b.
three; four
c.
two; four
d.
three; five
e.
three; two
 

 105. 

Which of the following is not an adaptation of reptiles for life in a terrestrial habitat?
a.
internal fertilization
b.
an amniotic egg
c.
excretion of uric acid
d.
dry, scaly skin
e.
None of the above, all are adaptations of reptiles for life in a terrestrial habitat.
 

 106. 

Because most reptiles are terrestrial, fertilization is ____________ and they are ____________.
a.
external; ovoviviparous
b.
external; oviparous
c.
internal; ovoviviparous
d.
internal; oviparous
e.
external; viviparous
 

 107. 

Which of these pairings is correct?
a.
diapsids: lizards
b.
diapsids: turtles
c.
synapsids: dinosaurs
d.
anapsids: mammals
e.
synapsids: crocodiles
 

 108. 

Fish excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of ____________; reptiles and birds excrete it as __________.
a.
uric acid; ammonia
b.
ammonia; uric acid
c.
urea; ammonia
d.
urea; uric acid
e.
ammonia; urea
 

 109. 

Order ____________ includes the snakes.
a.
Apoda
b.
Chelonia
c.
Aves
d.
Squamata
e.
Reptilia
 

 110. 

Order ____________ includes the turtles and tortoises.
a.
Crocodilia
b.
Squamata
c.
Chelonia
d.
Apoda
e.
Anapsida
 

 111. 

Snakes are most closely related to:
a.
lizards.
b.
turtles.
c.
eels.
d.
caecilians.
e.
synapsids.
 

 112. 

Birds are most closely related to:
a.
lizards.
b.
turtles.
c.
mammals.
d.
labyrinthodonts.
e.
terrapins.
 

 113. 

Within the chordate classes, the unique characteristic of the class Aves is:
a.
flight.
b.
production of uric acid.
c.
feathers.
d.
endothermy.
e.
All of the above.
 

 114. 

The only living descendant of the dinosaurs are the:
a.
marsupials
b.
monotremes.
c.
birds.
d.
mammals.
e.
amphibians.
 

 115. 

Which of the following functions is not associated with the presence of feathers in birds?
a.
temperature regulation
b.
minimization of water loss
c.
respiration
d.
flight
e.
protection
 

 116. 

Feathers probably first provided primarily _________ before they aided flight.
a.
protection from predators
b.
insulation
c.
camouflage
d.
bright colors
e.
protection from parasites
 

 117. 

Which of the following adaptations is associated with the ability of birds to fly?
a.
high metabolic rate
b.
broad, keeled breast bone
c.
"one-way" air flow through the respiratory system
d.
hollow bones
e.
All of the above.
 

 118. 

About ____________ species of birds have been described.
a.
1,000
b.
2,000
c.
4,500
d.
9,000
e.
20,000
 

 119. 

A characteristic seen only in mammals is:
a.
hair.
b.
mammary glands.
c.
three middle ear bones.
d.
incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
e.
All of the above.
 

 120. 

Mammals descended from a group of reptiles known as:
a.
euthurians.
b.
lancelets.
c.
therapsids.
d.
holothurians.
e.
labyrnthodonts.
 

 121. 

The earliest mammals resembled small:
a.
dogs.
b.
koalas.
c.
kangaroos.
d.
monkeys.
e.
shrews.
 

 122. 

The wide adaptive radiation of mammals occurred during the early:
a.
Cenozoic.
b.
Paleozoic.
c.
Tertiary.
d.
Devonian.
e.
Jurassic.
 

 123. 

Marsupials include the:
a.
cat.
b.
armadillo.
c.
opossum.
d.
crocodile.
e.
spiny anteater.
 

 124. 

The monotremes are unusual as they:
a.
lack mammary glands.
b.
lack hair.
c.
lay eggs.
d.
have pouches.
e.
exhibit parthenogenesis.
 

 125. 

Horses and cattle are in different mammalian orders based on differences in their:
a.
diet.
b.
foot structure.
c.
locomotion.
d.
teeth.
e.
reproductive mechanisms.
 
 
Figure 30-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar006-1.jpg

 

 126. 

The animals pictured in Figure 30-03 belong to the order:
a.
Xenarthra.
b.
Rodentia.
c.
Lagomorpha.
d.
Perissodactyla.
e.
Insectivora.
 

 127. 

Which of the following characteristics does not apply to members of the order in Figure 30-03?
a.
nocturnal
b.
insectivores
c.
aquatic
d.
placental mammals
e.
some weigh less than 5 g
 
 
Figure 30-04
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar007-1.jpg

 

 128. 

The animal pictured in Figure 30-04 belongs to the order:
a.
Xenarthra.
b.
Rodentia.
c.
Lagomorpha.
d.
Perissodactyla.
e.
Insectivora.
 

 129. 

Which of the following characteristics does not apply to members of the order in Figure 30-04?
a.
teeth reduced or absent
b.
insectivores
c.
some are arboreal
d.
complex social interactions
e.
All of the above, none of these characteristics apply to this order.
 

 130. 

All of the following are linked to the development of the coelom except:
a.
a hydrostatic skeleton.
b.
protection of internal organs.
c.
transport of food and wastes.
d.
the pumping action of the heart.
e.
None of the above, all are linked to the development of the coelom.
 

 131. 

The protostome coelomates are divided into 2 major groups, the:
a.
flatworms and roundworms.
b.
Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa.
c.
Mollusca and Arthropoda.
d.
invertebrates and vertebrates
e.
Chelicerata and Mandibulata.
 

 132. 

A coelom provides several benefits, including:
a.
a hydrostatic skeleton.
b.
transport of materials.
c.
independent movement of the digestive system and the body wall.
d.
a space for internal organs.
e.
All of the above.
 

 133. 

A lophophore is:
a.
a ciliated ring of tentacles surrounding the mouth.
b.
Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa.
c.
a muscular foot for locomotion.
d.
invertebrates and vertebrates.
e.
Chelicerata and Mandibulata.
 

 134. 

The trend toward cephalization is first seen in the:
a.
scyphozoans.
b.
poriferans.
c.
platyhelminths.
d.
nematodes.
e.
nemerteans.
 

 135. 

The type of excretory structures characteristic of platyhelminths are:
a.
protonemas.
b.
protonephridia.
c.
nephridia.
d.
Malpighian tubules.
e.
antennal organs.
 

 136. 

Like the cnidarians, flatworms depend on ____________ for achieving circulation and gas exchange.
a.
blood
b.
hemolymph
c.
diffusion
d.
hearts
e.
lungs
 

 137. 

The intermediate host for many flukes is a:
a.
human.
b.
cow.
c.
dog.
d.
cat.
e.
snail
 
 
Figure 29-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar008-1.jpg

 

 138. 

In Figure 29-01, which structure is responsible for circulation in this animal?
a.
1
b.
4
c.
5
d.
6
e.
None of the above.
 

 139. 

In Figure 29-01, the structure labeled 5 is used for:
a.
food intake.
b.
digestion.
c.
locating food.
d.
coordination of movement.
e.
locomotion.
 

 140. 

The anterior end of a tapeworm is known as the:
a.
proglottid.
b.
cnidocyte.
c.
auricle.
d.
protonephridia.
e.
scolex.
 

 141. 

The nervous system of flatworms:
a.
consists of a single, large ganglia in the head region.
b.
is sometimes referred to as tube like.
c.
includes two dorsal nerve cords.
d.
is diffuse and net like.
e.
None of the above.
 

 142. 

Free-living flatworms belong to the class:
a.
Monogena.
b.
Lophotrochozoa.
c.
Turbellaria.
d.
Cestoda.
e.
Chelicerata.
 

 143. 

Planaria are:
a.
detritivores.
b.
omnivores.
c.
herbivores.
d.
carnivores.
e.
parasites.
 

 144. 

Tapeworm(s):
a.
have a tube like digestive system.
b.
have a closed circulatory system.
c.
bodies consist of hundreds of reproductive segments.
d.
have a well developed sensory system to find vertebrate hosts.
e.
life cycles are simple and completed in their vertebrate hosts.
 

 145. 

Which of the following characteristics is not associated with nemerteans?
a.
presence of a true coelomic space, the rhynchocoel
b.
blood vessels
c.
a heart
d.
a proboscis
e.
None of the above, all are characteristic of nemerteans.
 

 146. 

Ribbons worms have a unique ___________ that is used to capture prey.
a.
proboscis
b.
tentacle
c.
set of jaws
d.
claw
e.
forked leg
 

 147. 

Which of the following terms can be associated with many molluscan species?
a.
chelicerae
b.
pupa
c.
radula
d.
pen
e.
internal shell
 

 148. 

Most molluscs are:
a.
found in freshwater.
b.
marine.
c.
terrestrial.
d.
arboreal.
e.
None of the above.
 

 149. 

The veliger larval form is unique to:
a.
insects.
b.
annelids.
c.
molluscs.
d.
arthropods.
e.
crustaceans.
 

 150. 

Closed circulatory systems are found in the:
a.
Cephalopoda.
b.
Mollusca.
c.
Bivalvia.
d.
Gastropoda.
e.
Polyplacophora.
 

 151. 

An animal found in the rocky intertidal zone has eight overlapping plates and is tightly adhering to the rock with a muscular foot. This animal is most likely a member of the class:
a.
Polyplacophora.
b.
Polychaeta.
c.
Bivalvia.
d.
Gastropoda.
e.
Cephalopoda.
 

 152. 

Members of the class Bivalvia:
a.
have gills that secrete the shell.
b.
have a mantle that may form pearls.
c.
are all sessile.
d.
all have a radula.
e.
have a broad foot used for locomotion.
 

 153. 

Bivalves are:
a.
detritivores.
b.
herbivores
c.
omnivores.
d.
carnivores.
e.
filter feeders.
 

 154. 

Torsion may be an adaptation in __________ that allows the ___________ to be withdrawn first into the shell.
a.
bivalves; foot
b.
bivalves; head
c.
gastropods; foot
d.
gastropods; head
e.
cephalopods; head
 

 155. 

Which of the following are shell-less molluscs?
a.
nudibranchs
b.
scallops
c.
pulmonate gastropods
d.
chitons
e.
squids
 

 156. 

Which of the following is an adaptation that enables cephalopods to escape from their predators?
a.
torsion
b.
poisonous salivary secretions
c.
a hard shell
d.
rapidly changing colors
e.
a modified radula
 

 157. 

Which of the following terms is associated with polychaetes?
a.
radula
b.
metamorphosis
c.
parapodia
d.
mantle
e.
visceral mass
 

 158. 

Annelids:
a.
have a visceral mass.
b.
have a segmented body.
c.
surround their body with a mantle.
d.
move with a muscular foot.
e.
have an open circulatory system.
 

 159. 

In both mollusks and annelids, the first larval stage is known as:
a.
a veliger.
b.
a glochidium.
c.
a zoea.
d.
a protostome.
e.
a trochophore.
 

 160. 

Critical to polychaete and oligochaete locomotion are:
a.
jointed appendages.
b.
parapodia.
c.
setae.
d.
fins.
e.
tentacles.
 
 
Figure 29-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar009-1.jpg

 

 161. 

The larva in Figure 29-02 is:
a.
a veliger.
b.
a glochidium.
c.
a trochophore.
d.
a nauplius.
e.
a pupa.
 

 162. 

The larva in Figure 29-02 is representative of the phyla:
a.
Annelida and Arthropoda.
b.
Mollusca and Annelida.
c.
Nemertea and Rotifera.
d.
Nemertea and Nematoda.
e.
Rotifera and Arthropoda.
 

 163. 

Members of the class ________________ include blood-sucking parasites.
a.
Oligochaeta
b.
Polychaeta
c.
Polyplacophora
d.
Hirudinea
e.
Cephalopoda
 

 164. 

The class __________ includes Lumbricus terrestris, the common earthworm.
a.
Oligochaeta
b.
Polychaeta
c.
Polyplacophora
d.
Hirudinea
e.
Malacostraca
 

 165. 

Some spawning marine polychaetes ensure fertilization by:
a.
synchronizing release of sperm and eggs.
b.
using internal fertilization.
c.
being hermaphroditic.
d.
living in close colonies.
e.
None of the above.
 

 166. 

Hermaphroditic earthworms reproduce sexually by connecting their bodies by their ____________. This allows transfer of ____________ from one worm to the other.
a.
setae; zygotes
b.
setae; eggs
c.
setae; sperm
d.
clitellum; eggs
e.
clitellum; sperm
 

 167. 

Segmentation is important in annelids as an aid in:
a.
respiration.
b.
reproduction.
c.
movement.
d.
sensation.
e.
eating.
 
 
Figure 29-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar010-1.jpg

 

 168. 

The dorsal blood vessel is the structure labeled ____ in Figure 29-03.
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
5
e.
6
 

 169. 

The cross section in Figure 29-03 is representative of the architecture found in:
a.
phoronids.
b.
nemerteans.
c.
Diplopoda.
d.
Polyplacophora.
e.
oligochaetes.
 

 170. 

_________________ is an anticoagulant used by leeches.
a.
Chitin
b.
Calcium carbonate
c.
Hirudin
d.
Pheromone
e.
Saxitoxin
 

 171. 

________________ superficially resemble bivalves.
a.
Brachiopods
b.
Rotifera
c.
Mollusca
d.
Bryozoa
e.
Chelicerata
 

 172. 

After embryonic development, members of the phylum Rotifera are incapable of:
a.
locomotion.
b.
cell division.
c.
ingestion.
d.
reproduction.
e.
None of the above, all are functions of post-embryonic rotifers.
 

 173. 

Animals with a crown of cilia that look like a spinning wheel are the:
a.
bryozoans.
b.
phoronids.
c.
ctenophores.
d.
rotifers.
e.
platyhelminths.
 

 174. 

You have a sample of cat emesis (vomit) and find worms in the sample. The cylindrical worms are long and slender, pointed at each end, with no other distinguishing characteristics. They are members of the phylum:
a.
Platyhelminthes.
b.
Nematoda.
c.
Cnidaria.
d.
Annelida.
e.
Nemertea.
 

 175. 

The ____________ of roundworms allows them to resist desiccation in terrestrial environments.
a.
epidermis
b.
endodermis
c.
shell
d.
cuticle
e.
mesoglea
 

 176. 

________________ are parasites that infect humans, and, as adults, reside in the small intestines of the host.
a.
Pinworms
b.
Ascarid worms
c.
Trichina worms
d.
Rotifers
e.
Caenorhabditis elegans
 

 177. 

A Trichinella infection is most common in persons who:
a.
eat undercooked beef.
b.
eat undercooked pork.
c.
eat undercooked fish.
d.
walk barefoot in a cow pasture.
e.
walk barefoot in a rice field.
 

 178. 

The phylum name Arthropoda refers to:
a.
a hard exoskeleton.
b.
the ability to fly.
c.
jointed appendages.
d.
respiratory capabilities.
e.
a segmented coelom.
 

 179. 

Which of the following does not characterize arthropods?
a.
presence of a coelom
b.
segmentation
c.
an open circulatory system
d.
an exoskeleton
e.
an incomplete digestive tract
 

 180. 

One of the disadvantages of exoskeletons in arthropods is that:
a.
they severely limit locomotion.
b.
they interfere with ingestion.
c.
they must be shed when the animal grows.
d.
they do not provide adequate protection from predators.
e.
they do not prevent desiccation.
 

 181. 

Velvet worms belong to the phylum:
a.
Nematoda.
b.
Annelida.
c.
Mollusca.
d.
Onychophora.
e.
Arthropoda.
 

 182. 

The ___________ are very common arthropod Paleozoic fossils, and are extinct today.
a.
moss animals
b.
trilobites
c.
lophophorate animals
d.
tardigrades
e.
phoronids
 

 183. 

Members of the subphylum ________ lack antenna but possess unique mouthparts, which are not mandibles.
a.
Crustacea
b.
Uniramia
c.
Chelicerata
d.
Chilopoda
e.
Arachnida
 

 184. 

Segmentation in arthropods differs from that of annelids because arthropod segments are:
a.
smaller.
b.
less specialized.
c.
only present in adults.
d.
more specialized.
e.
only present in larvae.
 

 185. 

Biramous appendages in arthropods are only present in:
a.
crustaceans.
b.
horseshoe crabs.
c.
insects.
d.
arachnids.
e.
centipedes.
 

 186. 

The dragline that is laid by many spiders serves as a means of:
a.
capturing prey.
b.
capturing a mate.
c.
detecting the pull of gravity.
d.
communicating with other spiders of the same species.
e.
holding the eggs of spiders.
 

 187. 

An arthropod with chelicerae, pedipalps, and silk glands would be:
a.
a scorpion.
b.
a tick.
c.
a mite.
d.
a spider.
e.
a barnacle.
 

 188. 

Scorpion pincers are enlarged:
a.
chelicerae.
b.
maxillae.
c.
mandibles.
d.
pedipalps.
e.
legs.
 

 189. 

_________________ are the most economically important chelicerate pests.
a.
Spiders
b.
Scorpions
c.
Mites and ticks
d.
Horseshoe crabs
e.
Trilobites and eurypterids
 

 190. 

Arthropods with mandibles, gills, antennal glands, and statocysts are the:
a.
insects.
b.
spiders.
c.
scorpions.
d.
crustaceans.
e.
mites.
 

 191. 

Arthropods with mandibles, a single pair of antennae, and two legs on most body segments are:
a.
ribbon worms.
b.
centipedes.
c.
millipedes.
d.
trilobites.
e.
mites.
 

 192. 

As adults, ______________ are sessile crustaceans.
a.
ticks
b.
the decapods
c.
shrimp
d.
the uniramids
e.
barnacles
 

 193. 

A nauplius larva is characteristic of:
a.
echinoderms.
b.
gastropods.
c.
molluscs.
d.
crustaceans.
e.
ctenophores.
 

 194. 

__________________ are used by crustaceans for detecting the pull of gravity.
a.
Antennal glands
b.
Maxillae
c.
Draglines
d.
Statocysts
e.
Swimmerets
 

 195. 

Insects are most closely related to:
a.
mites.
b.
ticks.
c.
millipedes.
d.
lobsters.
e.
crustaceans.
 

 196. 

Gas exchange in terrestrial insects is accomplished through:
a.
the use of gills.
b.
the use of book lungs.
c.
the use of tracheae.
d.
diffusion across the epidermal layer.
e.
a closed circulatory system.
 

 197. 

The largest class of animals in terms of the number of different species is the class:
a.
Arachnida.
b.
Insecta.
c.
Gastropoda.
d.
Bivalvia.
e.
Arthropoda.
 

 198. 

Horseshoe crabs belong to:
a.
the subphylum Uniramia.
b.
the subphylum Crustacea.
c.
the class Chilopoda.
d.
the class Merostomata.
e.
the class Malacostraca.
 

 199. 

One adaptation of insects that is specific to this group among all arthropods is:
a.
cephalization.
b.
hard exoskeletons.
c.
segmentation.
d.
specialized mouthparts.
e.
wings.
 

 200. 

An elongate uniramid with many legs as well as poison claws is called:
a.
a mite.
b.
a tick.
c.
an insect.
d.
a centipede.
e.
a millipede.
 

 201. 

Which of the following arthropod groups is almost exclusively aquatic in habitat?
a.
Arachnida
b.
Crustacea
c.
Insecta
d.
Chilopoda
e.
Diplopoda
 

 202. 

Which of the following animals has an open circulatory system?
a.
clams
b.
crabs
c.
insects
d.
snails
e.
All of the above.
 
 
Figure 29-04
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar011-1.jpg

 

 203. 

Which of the insects in Figure 29-04 represents orders that have incomplete metamorphosis?
a.
2 and 3
b.
1 and 4
c.
3 and 5
d.
1 and 6
e.
5 and 6
 

 204. 

Which insect in Figure 29-04 represents a group that parasitizes plants?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5